A photovoltaic system is able, thanks to its modules (PV panels), to convert solar energy directly into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect. The latter is given by the photovoltaic cells that allow light radiation to free electrons from semiconductor materials, such as silicon, charging them electrically.
Doing so, the photovoltaic panels produce electric energy.
The direct electric current, thus produced, reaches the inverter, a device that transforms it into alternating current. After passing through the meters, the current enters the electricity network (if the system is connected to the public network) or is stored in special accumulators, if it is a stand-alone system, i.e. not connected to the network.